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TOP >  学術論文:マスティハ  もくじ > マスティハ精油とコレステロール




1.    Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity  
  Ioanna Vallianou1, Nikolaos Peroulis1, Panayotis Pantazis2, Margarita Hadzopoulou-Cladaras1*  
  1 Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2 ADNA Inc., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America  
  Abstract
Background:Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO).
Methodology/Principal Findings:The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001), 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001). Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins.
Conclusions:Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent and merits further evaluation.
 


2.     Experimental Biology and Medicine 2009, 234:553-561. doi: 10.3181/0811-RM-338 マスティハ精油と動脈硬化症_マスティック
  Chios Mastic Gum Extract and Isolated Phytosterol Tirucallol Exhibit Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  
  Stella Loizou, Sotirios Paraschos, Sofia Mitakou, George P. Chrousos, Ioannis Lekakis and Paraskevi Moutsatsou  
  Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, University of Athens, Goudi, Athens 11527,
Greece; Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Athens Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, Athens 15771, Greece; First Department of
Pediatrics and Unit on Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Athens GR 11527,
Greece; and §Second Department of Cardiology, University General Hospital, Attikon,
Athens GR 12462, Greece
 
  Abstract
Chios mastic gum (CMG) is a white, semitransparent, natural resin that is obtained as a trunk exudate from mastic trees. Triterpenic compounds and phytosterols like tirucallol are among its major components. CMG has been associated with cardiovascular protection, exerting its effect mainly through increasing the antioxidant defense system, and effectively lowering the levels of serum cholesterol in human subjects. However, data on its anti-inflammatory effect on endothelium are scarce. Attachment of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium and the subsequent migration of cells into the vessel wall are early events in atherogenesis, and this process requires the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of CMG neutral extract (25.200 lg/ml) and tirucallol (0.1.100 lM) on the following: 1) the expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) by Cell ELISA and 2) the attachment of monocytes (U937 cells) in TNF-a stimulated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAEC) by Adhe ion assay. The impact of treatment with CMG neutral extract and tirucallol in NFkB phosphorylation was also examined by a cell-based ELISA kit. Both CMG extract and tirucallol inhibit significantly VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-a-stimulated HAEC. They also inhibit significantly the binding of U937 cells to TNF-astimulated HAEC and attenuate the phosphorylation of NFkB p65. This study extends existing data regarding the cardioprotective effect of CMG, expands the spectrum of known phytosterols with potent antiatheromatic activity, provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of CMG on endothelial function, and may aid in design of new therapy for intervention in atherosclerosis. Exp Biol Med 234:553.561, 2009
Key words: adhesion molecules; atherosclerosis; Chios mastic gum; HAEC; tirucallol
 




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