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TOP >  学術論文:マスティハ  もくじ > キオス・マスティハの抗酸化作用



1.      

Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:64 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-64

 
  Anti-inflammatory activity of Chios mastic gum is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha induced oxidative stress  
  Angelike Triantafyllou2, Alfiya Bikineyeva1, Anna Dikalova1, Rafal Nazarewicz1, Stamatios Lerakis1 and Sergey Dikalov1*  
  1 Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
2 Medical School of Athens, Athens, Greece
 
  Abstract
Background
Gum of Chios mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) is a natural antimicrobial agent that has found extensive use in pharmaceutical products and as a nutritional supplement. The molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory activity, however, are not clear. In this work, the potential role of antioxidant activity of Chios mastic gum has been evaluated.
Methods
Scavenging of superoxide radical was investigated by electron spin resonance and spin trapping technique using EMPO spin trap in xanthine oxidase system. Superoxide production in endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with TNF-α or angiotensin II and treated with vehicle (DMSO) or mastic gum (0.1-10 μg/ml) was measured by DHE and HPLC. Cellular H2O2 was measured by Amplex Red. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with mastic gum was determined by the decrease of purified PKC activity, by inhibition of PKC activity in cellular homogenate and by attenuation of superoxide production in cells treated with PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).
Results
Spin trapping study did not show significant scavenging of superoxide by mastic gum itself. However, mastic gum inhibited cellular production of superoxide and H2O2 in dose dependent manner in TNF-α treated rat aortic smooth muscle cells but did not affect unstimulated cells. TNF-α significantly increased the cellular superoxide production by NADPH oxidase, while mastic gum completely abolished this stimulation. Mastic gum inhibited the activity of purified PKC, decreased PKC activity in cell homogenate, and attenuated superoxide production in cells stimulated with PKC activator PMA and PKC-dependent angiotensin II in endothelial cells.
Conclusion
We suggest that mastic gum inhibits PKC which attenuates production of superoxide and H2O2 by NADPH oxidases. This antioxidant property may have direct implication to the anti-inflammatory activity of the Chios mastic gum.
Keywords: Inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidant; Chios mastic gum; superoxide; hydrogen peroxide; protein kinase C; NADPH oxidase; TNF-alpha; angiotensin II
 

2.     Phytotherapy Research Vol. 17, Issue 5, 2003, Page 501-507  
  Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation  
  Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos, Andriana C. Kaliora, Andreana N. Assimopoulou, Vassilios P. Papapeorgiou  
  Laboratory of Food Chemistry – Biochemistry - Physical Chemistry. Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition. Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., 176 71 Kallithea, Athens, Greece.  
  Abstract

Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chios mastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin liquid collection , P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses.
 

3.   Atherosclerosis 174 (2004) 293–303  
  Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression  
  G. V. Z. Dedoussis, A.C. Kaliora, S. Psarras, A. Chiou, A. Mylona, N.G. Papadopoulos, N. K. Andrikopoulos  
  a Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17 671 Kallithea, Athens, Greece
b Research Laboratories, Second Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
 
  Abstract

Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (Anacardiaceae) grows almost exclusively on Chios Island, Greece, and gives a resinous exudate resin used for culinary purposes by Mediterranean people. We investigated the molecular mechanisms through which total polar extract of the resin inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Cells exposed to oxLDL underwent apoptosis and necrosis, dependent on the duration of exposure. When culturing cells with oxLDL and the polar extract concurrently, we observed inhibition of both the phenomena. Because under oxidative stress the pro-oxidant systems outbalance the antioxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage and ultimately leading to cell death, we measured the levels of intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Additionally, we measured CD36 expression, a class B scavenger receptor, on CD14-positive cells, as CD36 has been identified as the oxLDL receptor in macrophages and may play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. oxLDL decreased GSH levels and upregulated CD36 expression. P. lentiscus extract restored GSH levels and downregulated CD36 expression, even at the mRNA level. In order to find out the biologically drastic constituents of the resin’s polar extract, fractions derived from RP-HPLC analysis were examined for their antioxidant effect on oxidatively stressed PBMC. The triterpenoid fraction revealed remarkable increase in intracellular GSH.We suggest GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression as the pathways via which P. lentiscus triterpenes exert antioxidant/antiatherogenic effect. Additionally, our results provide strong evidence of the resin’s antiatherogenic effect; therefore it is credited with beneficial health aspects.
 

4.    In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):93-102.  
  Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells treated with an extract of the plant product, Chios mastic gum.  
  Balan KV, Demetzos C, Prince J, Dimas K, Cladaras M, Han Z, Wyche JH, Pantazis P.  
  Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33146, USA.  
  Abstract

A hexane extract of the plant product Chios mastic gum (He-CMG) is demonstrated to kill human colon cancer cells in vitro via the process of anoikis. Specifically, the sequence of events includes He-CMG-induced GI-arrest of the cells, detachment of the cells from the substrate and subsequent apoptosis. Anoikis is dependent on the concentration and duration of treatment with He-CMG. Presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, did not prevent cell detachment, but it did prevent apoptosis of the detached cells indicating that the process of cell detachment, but not apoptosis, is independent of caspase activation. He-CMG-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of the initiator caspases-8, and -9 and the effector caspase-3. Caspases are activated in cells at a relatively long time after detachment, and caspase-3 activation may require caspase-8 or caspase-9 activation, as determined by using HCT116 isogenic clones impaired in apoptosis mechanisms that involve these two caspases. Finally, electron microscopy observations indicated a time-dependent appearance of morphological features both typical and non-typical of apoptosis in cells treated with He-CMG for various periods of time. Taken together, the results demonstrated that He-CMG induces apoptosis in HCT116 cells and, therefore, further in vivo and in vitro studies of the anticancer activities of this plant product are warranted.
 




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